At least junior standing or consent of instructor. (3)
Role of religion in political life of the Muslim world since the nineteenth century. Political, intellectual, social and cultural transformations of Islamic traditions and values, both orthodox and popular. Evolution and transformation of the modernist pattern of thought; challenges to the authority of religious scholars from secular, modernist and Islamist movements; growth of non-political, popular Islamic movements. Special attention to comparative case studies of Egypt, Iran, Turkey, Pakistan and the Arab Gulf states.