Reading and discussion of poets, novelists, and essayists from West, East, and South Africa who have written in protest of French, English, Portuguese, and neocolonial oppression. Gender struggles and inequalities in indigenous systems. Analysis of cultural differences between African peoples and colonizing powers, as they are represented in literature and as they intersect with political and social realities; efforts to change them. Also listed as CPL 257. GradedABCDE.